An antenna is a special inverter, which converts a radio frequency field in an alternating current or vice versa. There are two basic types: the receiving antenna that receives radio frequency energy and converts it into an AC the transmitting antenna, which is fed with an AC current and converts it into a radio frequency […]
In telecommunication, a duplex connection is a connection with which can be communicated simultaneously in two directions. This is also known as full-duplex. That is to be able to distinguish it from the semi-duplex. Semi-duplex is a two-way connection with which communication cannot take place simultaneously in two directions. Communication takes place from the one […]
The 868 MHz frequency is virtually insensitive to disturbances because the number of systems permitted in this band are limited. Most industrial remote controls use the 868 MHz frequency. The length of the antenna Many people think that the range of the remote control is determined by the length of the antenna. However, the length […]
433MHz is a commonly used frequency band for all types of equipment that require little power, such as garage door openers, headphones, baby phones and remote controls. Also many inexpensive transmitters and receivers for switching devices and light dimmers operate on the 433MHz band. Due to the absence of bidirectional communication and encryption, protocols are […]
When establishing the Performance Level the hardware is also assessed. Any single malfunction in some of these parts may not result in the loss of the safety function and each malfunction must be detected. Technique To realize this dual processors are used. A big processor for all functionalities and a smaller one for checking all […]
With the ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical equipment) band, use is made of the radio spectrum for non-telecommunication intended purposes, such as for heating / drying / cooking, power transmission, welding, accelerating chemical reactions, etc. Worldwide, there are a number of bandwidths designated that can be used for such applications. The ISM bandwidths are there for […]
CAN stands for “Controller Area Network” and is a serial network which was originally developed for the automotive industry. Meanwhile it has also become a popular bus network for both automation and other applications. The CAN bus is mainly used in embedded systems. As its name implies, the network is composed of micro controllers. It […]
Companies in the EU that supply radio remote controls to the automotive industry are obliged to have them approved by means of an E11 certification. The E11 EMC standardisation (specific to the Netherlands) prescribes how these requirements of radio remote systems in automation must be complied with.